Lewis Waterman Inventions
Though attempts to create a water feature pen happened a lot previous, effectively functioning water fountain pencils had been developed in many places by several different creators from the 1850s through 1880s.
"Starting inside 1850s there was clearly a steadily accelerating stream of fountain pen patents and pencils in production. It had been just after three key innovations had been set up, but that water feature pen became a widely popular composing instrument. Those inventions were the iridium-tipped silver nib, hard rubberized, and free-flowing ink" (Wikipedia article on Fountain Pen, accessed ).
The development of free-flowing ink ended up being the innovation associated with American insurance coverage salesperson Lewis E. Waterman of brand new York City whom employed the capillarity concept allowing atmosphere to cause a stable plus movement of ink in the water fountain pen, getting U.S. patent number 293545 in February 1884. Waterman's process allowed a careful balance between ink making the pen and atmosphere penetrating:
"The downward flow associated with the ink by gravity and through activity of capillary destination when you look at the act of writing causes it to pass through [a] groove, and has a tendency to create a vacuum within the reservoir, which is fulfilled by the increase of air passing up through groove. The course of this present of atmosphere entering the ink-reservoir becoming opposing to this for the outflowing ink, the amount for the latter is notably lessened, and extortionate release prevented" (Patent 293545).