# Parker 75 converter

Here diary converter is dependent on the tables of the Babylonian schedule published in 1971 by Parker and Dubberstein and it is legitimate from 626/25 BCE, the accession 12 months of the Babylonian king **Nabopolassar**, until 75/76 CE, *i.e*. 12 months 386 for the Seleucid period (SE) or 322 regarding the Arsacid Era. Outside this interval, the converter will provide incorrect outcomes.

Observe that years before 1 CE are given both in historical as with astronomical notation, . 0 = 1 BCE, 1 = 2 BCE, an such like.

Whenever website is loaded the diary converter will output the Julian diary exact carbon copy of 1 Nisannu, 1 SE (Seleucid Era), as well as the length of the current thirty days. The day can be by hand set-to every other time between your limitations given above.

Remember that the Babylonian day began at sunset: the Western (proleptic Julian) dates distributed by the above mentioned calendar converter will be the post-midnight equivalents consequently they are as a result just good until sunset.

For convenience of Biblical scholars the weekday can be displayed, although there reaches present no proof the Babylonians had been familiar with the seven-day cycle associated with Hebrews.

#### The Tables regarding the Babylonian Calendar by Parker & Dubberstein (1971)

Cover associated with 1971 edition of Parker & Dubbersteins Babylonian ChronologyThis schedule converter will be based upon the **tables of this Babylonian diary** published in 1971 by Parker and Dubberstein. These tables had been in line with the computed first visibility associated with the lunar crescent as seen from Babylon using a lunar presence algorithm published because of the German astronomer Carl Schoch (1873-1929) in Langdon & Fotheringhams *The Venus Tablets of Ammizaduga* (1928).

an evaluation of the tables verifies earlier statements that sequences of greater than 8 weeks of either 29 or 1 month in succession happen relatively commonly: so there are 63 sequences of three 29-day months in succession and 386 sequences of three 30-day months in succession. Even much longer sequences will also be current but limited to 30-day months: you will find 79 sequences of four 30-day months in succession and there's one sequence of five 30-day months in succession (Nabonassar lunation numbers 2961 to 2965). There is also one lunation of strange size: the thirty days Arahsamna when you look at the 10th year of Darius I (Nabonassar lunation quantity 2916) has actually a length of 31 times.

Because the Western schedule dates provided by this schedule converter are calculated dates the in fact seen dates can occasionally differ by one-day if the very first sighting associated with the lunar crescent had been delayed by damaging weather conditions or advanced level by various other factors.

#### Comparison regarding the 1971 Tables with all the Tables in the Earlier Editions

In scholarly literary works most writers generally refer to the 1956 version of Parker & Dubbersteins chronological tables and hardly ever mention the 1971 edition as this version is usually considered to be an unchanged reprint of this 1956 version. The 1971 edition without a doubt seems to be identical aided by the 1956 version: the prefaces both in versions tend to be identical as well as the bibliographical parts mention no papers or researches later on than 1956.

However, a mindful comparison of the calendrical tables in both editions reveals which are not identical you can find three variations, all involving lunations of strange size. The 1956 edition details four lunations of strange size, in other words. 30 days of 28 days (Nabonassar lunation number 1826) and three months of 31 days (Nabonassar lunation numbers 2685, 2916 & 5361), whereas the 1971 version only lists one month of strange size (Nabonassar lunation number 2916 with a length of 31 times).

#### Comparison with More Current Computations

An evaluation associated with the 8670 lunations spanned by the tables of Parker & Dubberstein with (confirmed unpublished) computations considering more modern luni-solar ideas while the lunar exposure criterion of Bernard Yallop leads to 680 lunations (7.84%) varying in the first day's the month. Of these, 583 lunations began one day previously and 95 lunations started 1 day later, suggesting that Schochs criterion is somewhat less positive as Yallops criterion.

While the tables of Parker & Dubberstein record only one lunation of unusual size (31 days), the latest computations indicate two strange lunations in identical interval: one of 28 times (Nabonassar lunation number 2917) plus one of 31 times (Nabonassar lunation quantity 1827).

#### The Hebrew Calendar prior to the Destruction regarding the Temple

As the **Hebrew diary**, after the amount of the Babylonian Captivity (597-539 BCE), was closely linked to the Babylonian calendar, the above schedule converter can certainly be ideal for dating Jewish historic occasions through the second half associated with first millennium BCE.

Since The latitude of Jerusalem (31.78° N) is near compared to Babylon (32.54° N), the geometric conditions the very first exposure for the lunar crescent are particularly comparable both for areas. But considering Jerusalems much more westerly area (9.19° or 36.7 moments west of Babylon) the lunar age and lunar elongation through the sunlight, after sunset, will be a little bigger than at Babylon and also this can make it a little more straightforward to see. In many cases, when meteorological conditions are similar, this will probably cause a lunar crescent invisible at Babylon become noticeable in Jerusalem or, equivalently, in a lunar thirty days beginning one-day earlier in the day at Jerusalem than at Babylon.

Keep in mind that the guidelines for placing an intercalary month when you look at the Babylonian calendar plus the Hebrew calendar was different, therefore, although likewise called, the months in both calendars couldn't necessarily correspond with each other.